An Introduction to Sociology


A society is a living group of people participating in persistent external social interaction, usually involving the same geographical or political area, and usually subject to the same dominant cultural and political expectations. It is characterized by a common language, social structure, and norms, and by interaction within the group rather than at the interpersonal level. A society also includes a history, which may be extensive or brief.

The scope and depth of a society’s historical record may be known as the society’s past. The term society can also refer to the set of objects and actions considered to constitute it. A society’s past can thus include significant periods in history such as the pre-historical period, the Paleolithic era, the Earlyolithic period, the Neolithic age, the Medieval era, the Renaissance, and the Elizabethan era.

Societies differ in terms of their history and the kinds of objects and actions considered to constitute their societies. In terms of its history, a society is said to be a living body, having a complex physical, psychosocial, linguistic, and cognitive composition that has evolved with time. Societies also differ in terms of their culture, which refers to the modes of social organization that distinguish one society from another.

There are five basic kinds of cultures: ritual society, caste society, medieval society, ethnic society, and the average society. Culture affects interpersonal interaction and can affect reasoning, memory, behavior, and emotions. A society has a rich history, and the richness of a society’s history can be seen in the artifacts that constitute it.

Societies interact with each other on a number of different levels, including at the interpersonal level, at the social level, and at the transcendental level, the meta-level, and the divine level. Each society constructs its own symbolic language, and each society uses symbolic logic. Sociology can be understood as a descriptive science, in addition to an explanatory science, and sociology can be used to describe all of these aspects of human society.